Energy Management System 

The energy management system, EMS, controls the converters on the solar panels and the inverters with their batteries while cooperating with the central controller and with other EMSs for optimal power delivery to loads however connected. This could be either the DC or AC side of the grid. Communication with the other system elements is through powerline carrier (PLC) and LoRa protocols. The data received is processed with AI assistance before control signals are dispatched to the converters and to the loads for optimal energy balance. 

The EMS controls power gateways (grid connection switches), through PLC. The power gateways connect the local power system to the outside, effecting islanding and grid connection actions. Grid disconnection may be enforced by the central controller, a facility that is handy in energy trading within a microgrid.